Science et savoir faire grandissent un pays.
Ghana a quelques science et savoir faire peu.
Ghana a besoin de science et savoir faire.
Ferme, énergie et création ont besoin de plus science et savoir faire.
Chaque Ghana a besoin de science et savoir faire dans école.
Vision 2020: Science and technology advancements
According to the Vision 2020 document written in 1995, science and technology
“has an important role to play in the development process, but its status in Ghanaian culture is low. This
has retarded the country’s economic and social development, especially in agriculture and
document places a great deal of importance on investing in science and technology to improve Ghana’s economy
and the lives of its people, through education and increased production in the industrial, agricultural and energy
sectors. How well has the country performed in these areas over the past 25 years?
Vision 2020 saw science and technology as the key to unlocking economic growth. The
goal was to achieve a long-term average rate of economic growth of over 8% per annum. The GDP growth per annum from 1995 to 2018
averaged 5.3%. Looking at the average for the past 10 years alone, the number is
slightly higher at 6.86%, but still 1.14% short of the 8% target.
A key sector which research has shown is an indicator of a strong economy is construction, as it
has a multiplier effect through its links with other sectors of the economy. Vision 2020 sought to “establish an efficient and internationally
competitive domestic construction industry.” The construction industry has shown stable growth over the last two
decades, increasing its contribution to GDP, however its annual growth rate has decreased since 2008 from 39% to 2.9%
in 2016. Stunted growth is indicative of an
inability to produce materials locally, meaning a high cost due to imported materials, and to the lack of policy
and regulation in place to provide structure and support to the industry.
An article published in the Journal of African Studies and Development compared the science and technology rankings of African
countries from 2001 with those from 2011. The rankings were done using the RAND Corporation’s Index of
Science and Technology Capacity, which measures the infrastructure backdrop against which science and technology
activities could take place; the human and financial resources available to carry out those activities; and the
measurable or observable science and technology outputs. The picture showed very little improvement for Ghana in the time
period. In 2001, Ghana ranked 26th in Africa, out of 45 countries and
119th in the world, out of 150 countries. In 2011, they moved up 2
places to 24th out of 53 in Africa, but fell to 134th in the world, out of 213 countries. The paper also looked at adjusted figures for
Africa, taking population size into account in order to provide a more fair comparison. However, this only made
the picture worse for Ghana, placing them 27th in 2001 and
34th in 2011. Looking at Ghana’s ranking in comparison to the rest of the
world, it appears that Ghana’s science and technology development rate is lagging behind. The
sentiment that “countries with a larger S&T capacity generally tend to be the most prosperous and most
industrialized,” seems to
be reflected in the slowed growth in GDP over the past 25 years.
The development and growth of the agricultural industry is another area where science and
technology has a major impact. Vision 2020 notes that “without significant improvement in
agriculture’s performance, the long-term goal of the country cannot be achieved.” This can be achieved by the introduction
of new technology, application of research and increased focus on efficiencies.
One of the measures of efficiency noted is increasing crop production (through the use of research
and technology) to increase the yield without expanding the cultivated area. However, according to statistics from the World Bank in 2015, there
was a 43-66% gap for most staple commodities (maize, rice, cassava, yams, sorghum, cowpea) between the potential
yield per hectare and the actual yield. In 2016, cereal yields were estimated at 1.7t/ha, while the regional
average was 2.0 t/ha and potential yield was 5.0t/ha. Even Ghana’s biggest export and crop contributor to GDP, cocoa,
is considered one of the lowest yields in the world (400-450 kg/ha).
Vision 2020 planned to double the rate of growth in agricultural production and increase
agricultural output to an average growth rate of 4% per annum. However, since 2010, the average growth rate has been 3.3% per
According to 2014 data from the Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators (ASTI) and
International Food Policy Research Institute (IFRI), spending on agricultural research and development in Ghana
was 0.7 percent of agricultural output (excluding cocoa). This is below the 1% target set by the African Union and
half that of Kenya and almost two thirds lower than South Africa. Increasing funding for research and development for the agricultural
sector is essential to compete with the top producers in the world. In addition to this, Ghana has not conducted
an agricultural census in more than 30 years. A comprehensive census is necessary in order to get an accurate picture of what investment
and education is needed to improve agricultural practices.
Another major science and technology focus from Vision 2020 was to “establish an efficient,
dependable and integrated system for the supply and distribution of all types of energy,” maximising the use
of renewable energy. Ghana’s main
sources of power are hydroelectric, thermal (crude oil and diesel) and solar power. Ghana has steadily increased access to power over the last 25 years.
In 1995, only 35% of the population had access to power but by 2017, this had increased to 79%. Compared to the rate of coverage for Sub-Saharan
Africa, Ghana has performed well. Over the same time period, the rate of coverage across Sub-Saharan Africa
increased by just 17%, and in Ghana by almost 44%.
There is still a long way to go to reach the ambitious goal of having a dependable, efficient and
integrated system, as Ghana has experienced significant challenges with fuel supply and also suffers financially,
making it difficult to invest in advancements and improvements. As for renewable energy sources, only 0.03% of Ghana’s energy is
Science and technology education
In order to drive scientific and technological advances, the relevant skills and knowledge must
exist. This is why Vision 2020 sought to “improve the quality of education and give greater emphasis to
science and technology at all levels.”
Tertiary education in particular is seen as a marker for improved science and technology
capabilities. According to an article published in the Journal of African Studies and Development, the gross
tertiary enrolment rate offers the most complete and comparable data to predict science and technology capability
in the future. According to the World
Bank’s statistics, Ghana’s tertiary enrolment rate in 2018 was 15.69%, higher than the 9.39% average
for Sub-Saharan Africa. While this is still
significantly lower than rates achieved in countries like Tunisia and Libya, this is encouraging for Ghana’s future development, especially
since the rate quoted in Vision 2020 in 1995 was less than 2% of the population.
A focus to improve the quality of education in Ghana and especially emphasising
STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) skills in primary and secondary schools will go a long way
to helping Ghana achieve their goal of becoming a middle-income country.
In terms of achieving the long-term goals set out in Vision 2020 for science and technology, the
results are mixed. The country has shown positive growth, but still needs to build and invest in its science and
technology capabilities in order to rely less on imports and outdated agricultural, manufacturing and energy
practices. The increased enrolment rates in tertiary institutions is encouraging. If the government continues to
focus its efforts on quality education at all levels, fostering a love of science and technology, the Vision 2020
goal of a “science and technology culture at all levels of society and in all types of production to
accelerate economic growth and improve the quality of life of the population” can be achieved.